On June 21-24, 2004 the Tenth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR2004) was held at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. The conference was the continuation of the biennial series of international scientific symposia devoted to the development and applications of Ground Penetrating Radar techniques to surface and subsurface investigations. Scientific and technical information, which have been presented at GPR2004 via 198 contributed papers from 34 countries worldwide, ranges from radar systems and technologies, through antennas, data processing and inversion to the various and still increasing number of applications. The latter vary from archaeology to UXO detection. Based on the GPR2004 conference a special issue has been prepared for Near Surface Geophysics. They include twelve papers, which are an outgrowth of carefully selected presentations given at GPR2004. In this issue we proudly present the first eight papers presenting developments in electric and magnetic soil characterization, borehole radar, multi-component imaging and target signature extraction and with applications in monitoring of water level, fault geometry and activity, sedimentology and fracture zones. The other four papers will be published in pairs in the forthcoming issues of NSG of April and June 2006.