Physical characterisation of soils recovered from the ANZAC battlefield
As part of a unique tri-nation study to commemorate the centenary of the iconic First World War ANZAC battlefield, this paper summarises the results of a laboratory experimental investigation of some geotechnical and geophysical characteristics of soil recovered from this field in Gallipoli, Turkey. The geophysical characterisation of these samples comprises the determination of the dielectric properties, namely real, imaginary and dielectric dispersion, over a frequency band between 200 MHz and 6 GHz. This characterisation is performed at the samples’ in situ state as well as in a controlled range of water content from oven-dried to saturation. Specific frequencies pertaining to certain in situ geophysical applications and satellite surveys have been targeted as reference frequencies to study the dielectric data. Moreover, attenuation coefficients related to ground-penetrating radar applications are also estimated at 200 MHz for a range of water contents. Microstructure and mineralogy were examined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. Given the historical and archaeological significance of the ANZAC battlefield, these results can be used for future feasibility studies, planning, and result interpretation of geophysical investigations, including choosing the most appropriate time of the year and geophysical prospection tools, in this restricted-access study area.