This Special Issue of Near Surface Geophysics titled “GPR in Civil and Environmental Engineering: Recent Methodological Advances” is motivated by GPR 2018, the 17th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar that took place in June 2018 in Rapperswil, Switzerland. Due to tremendous technical developments, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has evolved into one of the standard techniques in the near-surface geophysical toolbox. It has proven its potential in many differ-ent fields of application. In addition to investigating natural geological and hydrological systems and processes, GPR is also an established method for non-destructive inspection of man-made structures, such as historical buildings, concrete bridges and road pavements. Usually, GPR is used as a struc-tural imaging tool for inspecting and interpreting 2D and 3D datasets in order to define subsurface geometries including the location of buried objects. More recently, GPR has been used increasingly for investigating and characterizing subsur-face materials in a more quantitative manner through use of various innovative processing and interpretation strategies.